aqa a level law revision notes

This covers all the topics and modules for all specifications including 2410, 7401, 7402. It was originally defined in R v Bateman. Hooke’s law states that the force (F) exerted on the spring is proportional to its extension (x). In the case of R v Lamb, the defendant pointed and fired a revolver, killing the victim. In this region, the extension of the spring is directly proportional to the load. The point P is referred to as the proportionality limit. The spring constant is different for different materials: the larger the value of k, the stiffer the material. Gross Negligence Manslaughter - This is a common law offence, which can be committed via an act or an omission. This constant of proportionality is known as spring constant (or force constant). In this article, Hooke’s law, a demonstration to understand the law, elastic limit and applications of Hooke’s law are discussed. This is because for the laws of logarithms, it doesn"t matter what the base is, as long as all of the logs are to the same base. Gross Negligence Manslaughter - This is a common law offence, which can be committed via an act or an omission. Plasticine is an example of such a material. glass, cast iron, etc.) Design of weightlifting equipment (cranes and forklifts). The spring extended 2 mm each time a 10 g mass is added (which increased the force due to gravity by 0.1 N). The grossness also depends upon the seriousness of the breach of duty committed by the defendant, in all the circumstances in which the defendant was placed, when it occurred. However, since neither the defendant nor the victim believed that the revolver would fire a bullet, there was technically no “assault”. Answers to Exam Practice Questions. When pulling these two wagons with the same amount of force, acceleration in the second wagon (a2) will be less than that of the first wagon (a1). MRN OCR A Level Law. NB: In the above example, I have not written what base each of the logarithms is to. Balancing Conflicting Interests Between Human Rights. In general, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn’t exist. A civil wrong is not enough, as illustrated in the case of R v Franklin, where the defendant threw a box off a pier, killing a swimmer. A helical spring, attached to a fixed point, hangs vertically and has weight attached to its lower end as shown in Figure 1. This is the elastic limit of the spring. Some of the applications are: Hooke’s law deals with a basic concept in physics – elasticity. Beyond the elastic limit, the change in shape is said to be plastic deformation. Once the load is increased above a certain limit, the spring fails to return to its original shape and size even after the load is removed. Cases involving drug taking are interesting to note. Although a spring is described in this case, Hooke’s law holds good to any object, provided the proportionality limit has not been exceeded. The spring constant is the force per unit extension. Another important law of logs is as follows. Consider a wagon as illustrated in Figure 1. Newton’s third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Now Test Yourself Answers. This shows that net force is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. My Revision Notes: AQA A-level Law. Finally, the unlawful and dangerous act must be the cause of the death. tend to develop cracks and then eventually break. The widespread applications in various fields makes it an important material behaviour. At the time, the throwing of the box off the pier was considered a civil offence, rather than a criminal one, so the defendant could not be found guilty of unlawful act manslaughter. In a vertical launch of a rocket (Figure 3), the weight of the rocket and drag (air resistance) act downwards. The aim of this experiment is to find the effect of adding masses on the extension of the spring. Newton’s second law states that the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Consider two wagons, as illustrated in Figure 2, where the weight placed on the second wagon (m2) is higher than the weight placed on the first wagon (m1). Mathematics. Newton’s first law states that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. Paperback #1 Best Seller in Politics & Government for Young Adults. Here, the court decided that the unlawful act must be such as all sober and reasonable people would inevitably recognise…the risk of some harm. Unlawful Act Manslaughter is a common law offence and isn’t defined under any particular statute. MRN: OCR B (MEI) A Level Mathematics Year 1/AS (Pure) Answers and full worked solutions to the Test yourself questions, and full worked solutions to all Target your revision questions, Exam-style questions and Review questions can be found here. Hooke’s law states that within the proportionality limit, the extension (x) of a body is directly proportional to the force (F) applied to it. It summarises what you need to know on Natural Moral Law for the new 2017 AQA Religious Studies specification. The elastic limit is the maximum force that can be applied to a wire/spring such that the wire/spring returns to its original length when the load is removed. In this article, Newton’s laws of motion and their practical implications are explained. The act must be unlawful in a criminal sense. Hooke’s law was developed by Robert Hooke in 1676 to describe the direct relationship between force exerted on a spring and its extension. Finally, it is up to the jury to decide whether the level of negligence exhibited was “so gross” as to amount to a criminal rather than a civil negligence charge. However, since the injection of heroin was what killed the victim, rather than simply being supplied with it, the defendant was found not guilty of unlawful act manslaughter. Exam Practice answers. In the absence of an external force, the wagon will not move. Let us now investigate Hooke’s law. This summary document provides a detailed summary of Natural Moral Law (Year 1), in a 9 page document. … There is one common property behind stretching of a spring and rubber band that come back to their original shape. Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. For example, in the case of R v Kennedy, the defendant supplied the victim with heroin. Some materials have very low elastic limit and they do not obey Hooke’s law at all. Beyond the plastic region, some brittle materials (e.g. The law means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The property that allows any material to regain its shape is called elasticity. Another 10 g mass is added and the extension is recorded. Thus, Newton’s first law can be demonstrated. MRN AQA A-level Law. There are several practical applications to this fundamental law that established a relationship between the load applied to a material and the resultant deformation. However, it was more recently defined very clearly in the case of R v Adomako. However, it was more recently defined very clearly in the case of R v Adomako. A good quote to use in your exam answers comes from Lord Mackay LC, in Adomako: “whether having regard to the risk of death involved, the conduct of the defendant was so bad in all the circumstances as to amount in their judgment to a criminal act or omission”. Find out more by reading our notes today. Created: Apr 21, 2020. This gives the jury the option to assess the seriousness within the context of the situation. Physics A-Level Resources for AQA, OCR and Edexcel. AS Papers 1 & 2 The fundamental law that governs this interesting phenomenon is the Hooke’s law. Physics A-Level Resources for AQA, OCR and Edexcel. In some cases, it may be possible that the unlawful and dangerous act is merely coincidental to the death. Newton’s third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. 10 g mass is added to the holder and the extension is recorded. Paperback. In fact, at the trial, expert witnesses argued that a competent anaesthetist would have realised the signs of the oxygen tube disconnection after about 15 seconds, rather than the four minutes that the defendant took, and even then only after being alerted by the alarm on the machine. This will help us understand Hooke’s law scientifically.

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