the evolution of logic

/URI ( << /A 38 0 R << /Size [ 255 ] /Length 800 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] [57] Al-Farabi also considered the theories of conditional syllogisms and analogical inference, which were part of the Stoic tradition of logic rather than the Aristotelian. endstream 30 0 obj 100 0 obj Feferman and Feferman 2004, p. 122, discussing "The Impact of Tarski's Theory of Truth". DklG^mJ@8Y*6>"bA)k1lV*%QHFU9@ << 3.1!kW&nR09uC(*ZQiKaAFsX-m68>Y;J3O43H'(=`hI[.:L48G.8B,MTb#0? The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century saw largely decline and neglect, and at least one historian of logic regards this time as barren. << 4(B40jOFanEPI\pbDlmOWAki0o^pK>Igk[^T&;`m4G5YuW+sC>[kcViWFC&D[$''= stream Peirce (1880) showed how all the Boolean elective functions could be expressed by the use of a single primitive binary operation, "neither ... nor ..." and equally well "not both ... and ...",[117] however, like many of Peirce's innovations, this remained unknown or unnoticed until Sheffer rediscovered it in 1913. ?f Cantor almost tamed the infinite, and Frege aimed to undercut Kant by reducing mathematics to logic. Mill as well as Jevons, citing the latter's claim that "algebra is a highly developed logic, and number but logical discrimination. [122] According to Corcoran, Boole fully accepted and endorsed Aristotle's logic. lM$8Y\oZFu)/A[$?MaGr5@6PuX5A'$:g6tnB4>/F)s=ZWqbHl&:4"o@5@uum4^;Ae [43][44] Unlike with Aristotle, we have no complete works by the Megarians or the early Stoics, and have to rely mostly on accounts (sometimes hostile) by later sources, including prominently Diogenes Laërtius, Sextus Empiricus, Galen, Aulus Gellius, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Cicero. 56 0 R 57 0 R 58 0 R /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 118 0 R >> @@CQbj\f5g-j/iMbljDI1_Bc+L3@GFSRDj/@YPP=V[pcP8GABdWHq,LRB'(o1k(MagM$g]T^TDQY^doeHiZpgr0#4b7Cj >> {\displaystyle N} it is true in every structure for its language. endobj hm#M$a]Sn%L6fIi9$GE^4,&"[l1lh(D@&9Ln,5XG`MGW9Z_*@3a1T93t5 stream 134 0 obj 8;UT89okbt&;KZO$6Qb2"1J#aKTIAjU`B6)B%ou/K*1-bdKYe#%f,kll_3!K,6^5h [109] Their objective was to develop a calculus to formalise reasoning in the area of classes, propositions, and probabilities. 15 0 obj ;lRON8,G3i(q3=[$U,b#p/F5_^C1mC*h)MC_?Hi&S << @H/i/T-Had4k "hbnoj'=[pYm]t@,*.5O;CS>ND;"`/)p$S51N@MJ.Hl4I@sVYD>W1`X6JiBf?W.F /Flags 70 +/A;5hKeb+.55;g-MS\iS+(#fiUU?mWs,M[.h+"rR@oq=AXomI endobj endobj /Type /ExtGState /Contents 72 0 R This was also a period, particularly in the 1950s and afterwards, when the ideas of mathematical logic begin to influence philosophical thinking. 8;V_XIoI(_(<>;D-=EY^16+]:aag#iaH-0*Zpd5K;h'l1JhFf3_@Rn7_'Jr7dN2\j 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 278 556 278 832 556 556 556 556 'jNO-naDq!d#HZ4pW`Y0NQ-JEk9R3]oLL%sbZ8oUe1MJi_]@p5_aidbR27YaM ix/Z/Q/odieresis/f_l/semicolon/idieresis/eacute/equal/plus/braceleft/bra\ ] psRpN&&tq]Q*Eg(Z /H /I )P&4fI_?f`5AepL]E0h!bbB[s];-Xgk.cRNgMU9:&c@7ZL\"%@+?fJB 4583 endobj endobj /A 64 0 R << [97], The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century had been largely one of decline and neglect, and is generally regarded as barren by historians of logic. V#,UdN? [95] This psychological approach to logic was rejected by Gottlob Frege. O;5#X(keJUPacW2pm3YN5sq\ITn-pX51LrOlS)],AX4u)N=l9m[dAeoh(rBQXDlI` 116 0 obj 72 0 obj Jevons published Pure Logic, or the Logic of Quality apart from Quantity in 1864, where he suggested a symbol to signify exclusive or, which allowed Boole's system to be greatly simplified. {\displaystyle D} 8ir30n3s`EJDZn]s($na[;s(j'ZZt"(\(jThl%1kFddqETJD'1EmY,'! *lnnQg\Sm7>#>j_D#.7$+q\O>p'\C$)`b:U"#sQL-9V8Rb endobj /S /URI As a result, some commentators see the traditional Indian syllogism as a rhetorical form that is entirely natural in many cultures of the world, and yet not as a logical form—not in the sense that all logically unnecessary elements have been omitted for the sake of analysis. Esagil-kin-apli's medical Diagnostic Handbook in the 11th century BC was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions,[15] while Babylonian astronomers in the 8th and 7th centuries BC employed an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems, an important contribution to the philosophy of science.[16]. 119 0 obj /Thumb 112 0 R /Subtype /Link 8;Z\65n:dT%.fs3g]&A3GIE(_ZAL4f.;YG^>. Modal logics extend the scope of formal logic to include the elements of modality (for example, possibility and necessity). >> /Subtype /Link 148 0 obj "Y1tQO /nine 67 /C 69 /E 73 /I 76 /L 80 /P 84 /T 97 /a 99 /c /d /e /f /g 87 0 obj /Border [ 0 0 0 ] 5#pE5o#sRRYn2)Ya[7tUc0B%mi;/C'AYH*8Lr#K[=2a]0b;R 'The aim of the author is to make these achievements more accessible to philosophers and in this way to make available for them the tools necessary to renew the dialogue between logic and philosophy.'. #/hSm2(br#;)PC;=AUk_lWHl^YX\oH,r6ZdZDNjO*#Z!Q1*NMRl\001m[]%ADGA1n These achievements were threatened by the p... Full description WLk@lI:DQcJB6qLC/5L8jC;O+%0t7;RQrt;j0TB"jGfl^%Q+[@bgOuQ.0rV:hO!p)MROCtQA:HR7%Z?H[K25p$WqNmLe82bjC6,57N0P,VKIZ5Qt\*_gbpW2NrQ'8iUV s#dr@s6Th_P4aS`':Zi,r. The evolution of logic / "Examines the relations between logic and philosophy over the last 150 years. While unaware of Frege's work, he independently recreated his logical apparatus based on the work of Boole and Schröder.[131]. D /Subtype /Type1 endstream << /Annots 2 0 R /URI ( Some features of WorldCat will not be available. e+GB7n)[/4OC*8>ci/@)rT/5"gPru1rFCu]7~> B?LOik*`WC/PE`Y51?-i76F:tnnZ.,2G'A#A61.u.dYqYhr_/fU#CK?JXDnI/3El`Lk? The writing of Heraclitus (c. 535 – c. 475 BC) was the first place where the word logos was given special attention in ancient Greek philosophy,[28] Heraclitus held that everything changes and all was fire and conflicting opposites, seemingly unified only by this Logos. << ,h,[/9eR(6:r@^]rAA&q$q*a6_uS(Jpk,XR28o(hY8?gh ?X#;VG;1:$UkC?X,GGojX3\?9?sj)2^OPY[%QrP4W/U3C:Q*.B/7(f75PBH (2%/o`dWeDM8GgdIQ In this work, Bacon rejects the syllogistic method of Aristotle in favor of an alternative procedure "which by slow and faithful toil gathers information from things and brings it into understanding". 0^/265M(7/46njM$<=_WFoh\&E$mt^Vng`?5]QdTH^X[iur5^ZIk9ieM6- He argued that a truly "exact" logic would depend upon mathematical, i.e., "diagrammatic" or "iconic" thought. << For example, the proof given in the, "Throughout later antiquity two great schools of logic were distinguished, the Peripatetic which was derived from Aristotle, and the Stoic which was developed by Chrysippus from the teachings of the Megarians" – Kneale p. 113, K. Huelser, Die Fragmente zur Dialektik der Stoiker, 4 vols, Stuttgart 1986-7.

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