Even more important, as a result of industrialization the nature of those jobs shifted. Joseph Marie Jacquard Britain had abundant supplies of coal of a quality especially well suited to iron production, and its lack of wood forced it to exploit this resource from the seventeenth century on; in contrast, France had plenty of wood and relatively little coal, and Holland had only peat, which could not produce the high temperatures needed for large-scale iron production. The number of cities with populations of more than 20,000 in England and Wales rose from 12 in 1800 to nearly 200 in 1900. For example, the use of coke in the smelting of iron ores required a more intense flow of air through the furnace. New York: Viking. These two facts reinforced each other, and together they constricted Europe's economic development. Men, women, and children alike were employed at extremely low wages in crowded, unhealthy, and dangerous environments. While industrialization was relatively late and derivative in the United States, demand for manufactures was quite high from the colonial period onward. This machine consisted of a large frame to which was suspended a series of threads through which a shuttle carrying more thread could be passed. Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. In cities such as New York and Chicago, the fabulously wealthy built huge, elaborate mansions that overlooked desperately poor slums. Small amounts of steel were produced before the 1860s, but it was five times stronger than cast iron. While it does not explicitly discuss the Industrial Revolution, its explanation of the Neolithic and urban revolutions provide interesting background and a global perspective. Encyclopedia.com. The Industrial Revolution began in England in the early eighteenth century, and developed later in the United States, around the time of the American Revolution (1775–83). This led to such ventures as the Boston Manufacturing Company, founded under the impulse of Boston merchant Francis Cabot Lowell in 1813 in Waltham, Massachusetts. As the historian Jan de Vries has argued, seventeenth- and eighteenth-century families were working harder than they had in the past in exchange for the ability to buy more goods: cottage industry allowed women and children to earn cash incomes, and it converted what had been the family's leisure time—especially the slow phases of the agricultural cycle—into cash as well. Various factors delayed the permanent organization of the miners until a major leader, James Keir Hardie, emerged from their ranks. . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Beginning in the 1730s, however, a number of inventors began to develop machines that took over one or more of the previous hand-knitting operations. Industrial zones like these were genuine challenges to the established order of European society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. New agricultural practices, such as the enclosures policies that brought more land under development, Jethro Tull's mechanical drill for sowing seed (c. 1701), Lord Townshend's four-year crop rotation system, advances in animal breeding, and the cultivation of the potato in Ireland, made possible a period of steady population growth. By the late 20th century postmodern historians largely stopped looking for deep explanatory forces, or sharp turning points, and stressed instead complexity and interrelationships. Plants were moved or newly built in areas close to coal resources such as Southern Wales, Yorkshire, and Staffordshire. Output was expensive and consumed locally. Encyclopedia.com. But the water frame was larger and from the beginning required an external power source to drive it. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. This machine consisted of a large frame to which was suspended a series of threads. Coal was unusable in blast furnaces for various reasons, but in 1709 Abraham Darby discovered that coke, a burnable substance produced from coal, could be used. Historians have also given more attention to the survival of small workshops and skilled work during the industrial revolution. The industrialization of the United States also produced a fundamental reorganization of public consumption. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/industrial-revolution-0. And although industrialization often forced women to work under horrible conditions for less pay than their male counterparts, this was sometimes mitigated by new opportunities for employed women, such as freedom from the toil or drudgery of farm labor, increased personal and economic freedom, and exposure to urban influences. of the transition to the factory system; for many ordinary people, this was the point at which clock time became an essential component of daily life and the pocket watch the sign of one's responsibility. At the same time, the Industrial Revolution firmly connected the scientific tradition to technological development, leading to increased industrial research and development, new standards of education, superior scientific equipment, government funding of science, and renewed support for the increase of human knowledge.  In 1811 Britain saw more than 5,000,000 spindles at work, of which 310,500 used the Arkwright principle, 4,600,00 that of Crompton's mule spindle, and 156,000 that of Hargreaves' jenny. Most broadly of all, it includes the ongoing industrialization of much of the world. Inventors began to think about the possibilities of using iron in buildings and ships. The Industrial Revolution is a period of economic transformation in Great Britain from the 1750s to the 1830s, characterized by the growth of a new system comprising factories, railroads, coal mining and business enterprises using new technologies that it sponsored. Industrialization also depends on technological developments in manufacturing, power generation and transmission, transportation, and raw materials processing. (1) Hobsbawm, E J. Steam power and coal fuel allowed the potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795) to establish mass production processes in making porcelain, until then a luxury good. Described as a "nation of shopkeepers," Britain was founded on commerce, and its many merchants and middlemen fostered the spread of the market and funded manufacturing endeavors. But though handloom weaving remained dominant, a revolution in the cotton industry had already occurred by the end of the eighteenth century: between 1770 and 1800 imports of raw cotton to Britain increased twelvefold. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/industrial-revolution. The result was malleable iron in large quantities. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Colonel Edwin Drake was the first person to successfully use drilling to extract oil from the earth, which he did in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, but John D. Rockefeller was the man who succeeded in gaining control over 90 percent of American refineries between 1865 and 1879, creating with Standard Oil the first modern monopoly in America. one of his steam-powered locomotives pulled a load of 10 tons for a distance of almost 10 miles (16 kilometers) at a speed of about 5 miles (8 kilometers) per hour. Accounting was sloppy at best, making precise cost control impossible. Although localized to certain parts of Britain (the London area was not included), its impact was felt worldwide on migration, trade, society, politics, cities, and countryside. At least as important as the invention of individual machines was the organization of industrial operations for their use. In the first years of the new nation, the majority of Americans lived within one hundred miles of the East Coast, but as the nineteenth century began, people began to migrate west. On the hand loom the operator pulled the shuttle carrying the woof from one side of the warp to the other. ." Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/industrial-revolution-2. All were seeking work. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/industrial-revolution, Newton, David "Industrial Revolution By the last decade of the eighteenth century, steam engine–powered factories were being built throughout England. . In the years between 1800 and 1900, the total national income in Great Britain increased by a factor of ten. The proto-industrial workforce was in some sense a proletariat, whose economic fate rested with others; some historians have suggested that these workers were in effect learning the habits that they would eventually need to work in the factories of the nineteenth century. But the critical fact was manufacturers' readiness to respond to opportunities that the global economy presented. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1984. Such changes also brought about a revolution in the nation's political structure. Alexander Hamilton's Report on Manufactures (1791) made explicit reference to "the extension of the use of machinery," especially in the British cotton industry, and in 1812, Tench Coxe, a political economist and career official in the Treasury Department, peppered his Report on the State of Manufactures in the United States with paeans to "laborsaving machinery."
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